Once there was a little boy who loved all living things so much, he did not want to see any animal or person hurt. One time he was with a friend who was going to use a slingshot to shoot at some birds sitting in a field. The boy ran out into the field and shooed the birds away before his friend could hit them. This boy grew up to be a very famous man. His name was Albert Schweitzer.
Albert Schweitzer first became famous as a writer and a musician. But then he asked himself what he could do to help people the most. He decided to study to be a doctor so that he could make sick people well and keep them from pain. In America and Europe there were many doctors. Africa was one place that had many sick people but few doctors. Dr. Schweitzer went to Africa to help this sick people.
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The doctor took big boxes of medicine with him to Africa. He had to travel in a canoe on dangerous rivers through hot, green jungles. Huge snakes hung down from the limbs of trees. He could hear animals crashing through the forest and birds chattering.
At first the people of Africa were afraid of the new white doctor. But soon they understood that he was their friend and they helped him build his first little hospital on the bank of a river. Some sick people walked to his hospital traveling on jungle trails. Others came in boats made from logs. Children with big sores all over their bodies were brought to the hospital. Some people came who had bitten by snakes or by big spiders. Dr. Schweitzer worked all day every day and many nights helping these people. As time went on,other doctors and many nurses came to help him.
When he ran out of money and needed more medicine and hospital supplies he would go all the way back to Europe to give lectures and play organ recitals. Then he would return to Africa. Later he built a bigger hospital. He spent most of his life in Africa not only helping the sick but also teaching the people how to help each other.
Sardines are really little fish called herring. In many places along the ocean shore, fisherman wait to hear the news by telephone or radio: ” The herring are here!” The herring are here!” Factory and can company workers wait to hear the factory whistles” blowing for fish.” They know they’ll have work tomorrow.
The herring fish arrive in enormous numbers-millions and millions. Where do they come from? Nobody knows for sure. From out in the ocean somewhere. The slim, silvery blue fish swim toward the land to find food. One of the things they like best is a tiny shrimp no bigger than your little finger. When fisherman see a lot of these shrimp in the water, they look for a lot of herring to follow.For years and years fisherman have watched for herring in the same way. A man sits in a little house built on a high place at the edge of the ocean. He stays there all night and all day, watching and listening.
From high in the air the sea gulls see the herring first. In the evening the fishermen listens for the excited screaming of the sea gulls to tell him the herring are here. In the daytime he can see the gulls circle and dive. With its long, strong beak a gull picks a herring out of the water and flies away with it. There’s another way that the fisherman know when the herring have arrived. Herring are very oily fish. When many herring swim close together, oil comes to the top of the ocean and makes the water look slick. When fishermen see this oil slick, they know the herring are there.
Now they have to catch them. The fishermen have a fish trap all ready and waiting. The fish trap called a weir is so big that it can hold a hundred barrels of herring. The fishermen make the trap from slim trees-birch trees when they can find them-that they have cut down in the woods. They drive the posts made from these trees into the bottom of the ocean and let them stick up above the water. Then they fasten a seine or net to the posts. Now they are ready to catch herring.
Looking for shrimp, the herring swim along the shore. They come to a brush fence the fishermen have built in the water. They swim along the fence trying to find a way around it. The fence leads them into the big fish traps.
The trap is so big that a sardine boat can go inside it. A thick hose is put into the water. The fish are sucked into the boat the way dust is sucked into a vacuum cleaner bag, When the boat first goes into the trap, it is empty and floating high on the water. When it is loaded with herring, it sinks so low under its weight of fish that the water sometimes splashes over the deck. Like most fish, sardines do not live long once they are taken out of the water.
The boat takes the fish to the sardines canning factory. The fish are pumped through a hose out of the boat and into the factory. The whistle blows to let people know that there are fish to put into cans. The people come. They sort the fish and fit them into the cans. They add oil or mustard or spices. A machine closes the cans and the fish are cooked. The cans are then packed into boxes and taken by trucks and trains and boats to food stores all over the world. And that is how sardines get into cans, ready for you to eat.
I am in an up-and-down city, built on many hills. Riding on its steep streets is like riding down the tallest hill of a roller coaster.At the top of the hill you look almost straight down and hope the brakes will hold. On some streets little cars are pulled up and down the tracks by long metal ropes or cables. The tiny cars look like mechanical toys. Clang!Clang!Clang! go their warning bells. The cable cars are almost always crowded with passengers. Many of them are visitors to the city-tourists.
This city built beside a beautiful bay has fine weather-not too hot in summer and warm enough the rest of the time that flowers grow all winter. There is always the smell of the sea here. Two great bridges reach across the bay, and another bridge is not far away. One of these bridges painted a bright orange red is famous all over the world. It’s called the Golden Gate Bridge.
In the early days this city was just a tiny Spanish village. And then gold was discovered nearby. Hundreds of ships began sailing into the harbor as men came to hunt for gold. The village grew and grew until there were huge warehouses, wharves, tall buildings and fine homes. Maybe you have guessed its name. San Francisco! On the coast of California. It is one of the world’s great cities. Even if you see it through fog, it’s still beautiful. The fog comes in over and under the Golden Gate Bridge. It wisps through the tops of the eucalyptus trees and nudges the tops of tall buildings.
Sand. Sand everywhere. Sand down your neck, and sand between your toes. Sand at the seashore. You can see it along the beach in two directions as far as you can look.Sand in the desert. There you can see sand in four directions as far as you can look. There is sand at the bottoms of rivers, sand piled up in hills, or dunes at the edge of lakes, sand in mountains valleys and sand under the earth and on top of the earth almost everywhere.
It wasn’t always there. Where did it come from? Most things start small and grow big. But sand starts big and grow small though grow isn’t exactly the right word. Sand doesn’t grow small. It becomes that way when bigger things, mostly rocks break into smaller pieces. The wind, the frost and the rain are great sand makers. They work against high mountain cliffs…and slowly…slowly through millions of years..they break off pieces of rock, which tumble down the mountainside. As the rock bangs and bounces, it breaks off other pieces of rock, at the same time breaking itself into smaller pieces. It isn’t sand yet but it’s starting to be.
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Rivers help make sand too. The water of a river rushes down the mountainside, rolling rocks along and breaking them into smaller and smaller pieces. Glaciers are another good sand-maker. The heavy ice scrapes and grinds the rocks that it moves across. The ice also carries along the sand it has made and dump it in places far away.
Another great sand-maker is the ocean. All over the world the tides rise and fall and storm waves tear at the rocks along the shore, banging them together, wearing them down…until finally some pf the rocks are so small that they are what we call sand.
Most brown sand comes from a hard mineral called quartz, mixed with broken rocks. White sand comes from coral and seashells that have been broken up by the wind and water. Lava, which flows from volcanoes s often broken up into black sand. There are also red, gray and green sands. There is even golden sand-specks of real gold-which sometimes collects at the bottoms of fast-moving streams.