The Chewing Gum Tree

These are chewing gum trees. But no matter how closely you look, you will not see sticks of chewing gum hanging from them. The chewing gum comes from inside the tree. What do you think these canvas bags are filled with? Milk from a cow? No. They are filled with chewing gum-at least that’s what it will be. This is chicle, the stuff that chewing gum is made of. Chicle comes from the sapodilla tree.

The men who take the chicle out of the trees are called chicleros. The chiclero makes cuts high in bark of a sapodilla tree. The thick white juice runs slowly down the cuts in the bark into the chiclero’s bag. After the chicle has been collected, it is boiled in kettles until most of the water is gone. As it cools, the chicle is formed into blocks. These blocks are sent to a factory to be made into chewing gum.

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At the factory the chicle is made into a liquid. Any dirt or pieces of bark are taken out. Flavoring and sugar are put in. While the gum is still warm, it is passed between rollers to make it thin and flat. Then it is cut into strips and then into bite size pieces. Before a machine wraps each sticks of gum in paper, the sticks is dusted with powdered sugar so that it won’t stick. Another machine puts an outer wrapping around the wrapped sticks.

When you chew gum, your mouth and teeth squeeze all of the flavor and sugar out of the gum. The flavor or sugar is picked up by the juice in your mouth and swallowed. Pretty soon the gum doesn’t taste so good anymore. You say,” It’s lost its flavor.” Today chewing gum often is made of things other than chicle. When Columbus came to Africa the Indians were chewing gum made from spruce tree. You can still buy this kind of gum today in some places.

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There is a kind of gum that holds together so well that we can blow air through it and stretch it into a gum balloon. You know what kind of gum that is. Bubble gum.

The Man Who Painted on Tablecloth

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a great artist who belonged to a very rich and noble family in France. When he was a child he fell from a horse. That accident and another one crippled him so badly that he never grew much more than one feet tall. Because he couldn’t run and jump and play games with other children, he was very lonely when he was child. He had always like to draw and paint and he spent more and more time doing these things. Finally, he became so lonely on his parents’ great estate that he left home and went to Paris.

He wanted to have friends and he spent his time in Paris in the places where there were lots of people. He liked to visit restaurants, nightclubs, circuses and racetracks. Many of the friends he made worked at these places.

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In Paris he kept on drawing and painting. But now he didn’t make pictures of rose gardens and fountains and finely dresses ladies and gentlemen. e drew pictures of the dancers, the singers, the waitresses and waiters and his friends who sat at the tables. If he had no drawing paper, he drew his pictures on the backs of menus on napkins-even on tablecloths.

Toulouse-Lautrec didn’t care about getting money for his pictures. Often he just gave his pictures away to his friends. He painted because he wanted to-because he almost had to. Today, so many years afterward, people still like to see his pictures. And even the ones he painted quickly and gave away are shown in the great art museums of the world.

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Time for a Celebration

Can you imagine a skirt with a special pattern that only your family wears? or an emblem with a design that only your family uses? Long ago in Scotland, people lived in groups or clans. The men in each clan wore kilts-short skirts-with woven pattern showing which clan they belonged to. And in some countries many people still have their own family crest or emblem.

Not too long ago some of the American Indians who lived in Alaska and other parts of the Pacific Northwest had family emblems too. The emblems were called totems. Each totem-a family or clan might have several-was carved onto a wooden pole. These poles were called totem poles.The totem poles were important to a family because they told about things that had happened to them. At this time there was no written Indian language. Usually the carvings were of birds, fish or other animals that had special meaning to the family.

Many names came from the animals on a family totem pole. If you were a child whose family had a bear as one of their emblems, you might have been called Shaggy Bear. Totems were also carved on other things besides poles. They were put on almost everything a family owned-boxes, canoes, blankets and even the walls and posts of their house.

The men who did the carving worked hard and were well paid with gifts, such as woven blankets. The pole was usually carved from a tree that had been hollowed out by fire. The tree was dragged to a large open place where the carvers worked with their knives and other simple tools to make each special animal or design.

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When they had finished and the totem pole stood in front of the house, it was time for a family party, or potlatch (an Indian word meaning giving). Friends from the village and from neighboring tribes were invited to join in the celebration. These were huge platters of food and a present for each guest. If the family was rich, the gifts often consisted of canoes, thick fur robes or necklaces of delicate shells. The stories of the totem pole were told by the family or were acted out by dancers. It was a happy time.

Where Am I?

There are almost as many people in this city as there are on the whole continent of Australia. There are more people here than in any other city in the world. Is the city New York? Is it London? Is it Mexico City?No! No! No! In this city you can get the fastest train in the world. Is the city Chicago?Is it Paris? No! No!

From the top of a television tower in this city you could look down on the biggest ocean in the world. In the harbor you could see some of the biggest ships. There are many tall skyscrapers here but not long ago almost all the buildings were just a few stories high.

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Why? Because of earthquakes. In this city there is sometimes an earthquake-a little one-every few days. It only rattles the windows. But now and then there is a big earthquake-one that could shake tall buildings down if the engineers hadn’t learned how to build skyscrapers strong enough to stand through a bad earthquake.

Too-oo-oot! A man on a motor bike blows a little horn. Mothers hurry through the busy streets to buy hot noodle soup for supper. And over there is the entrance to the grounds of the emperor’s palace. People come to visit his park outside the ground. Twice a year they may go in past the gatehouse to visit his palace. Where on earth are we? Here is the name of the city. It’s Tokyo.

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Different Ways to Tell Time

How could we tell time if there were no watches or clocks anywhere in the world? The sun was probably the world’s first clock except far north, where the Eskimos live. There, it’s dark most of the winter and light most of the summer. But in most of the world people have used the sun for a clock. Even today if you don’t have regular clock that shows time, you still know that when the sun shines, it’s day and when it’s dark, it’s night.

Not only can the sun tell you whether it’s day or night but also whether it’s morning,noon or afternoon. When the sun is almost directly overhead, it’s noon. When the sun is halfway to this point,it’s the middle of the morning. When it’s halfway down again, it;s the middle of the afternoon.

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Have you ever noticed that your shadow is longest in the early morning and in the late afternoon?At noon when the sun is overhead there is little or no shadow. A long time ago, people noticed the way that shadows kept changing as the sun’s place in the sky changed. Do you know what they did about it?They made a sun clock or a sundial as we call it today.

When the sun shines on a sundial , a piece of metal sticking up on the sundial makes a shadow. As the sun’s place in the sky changes, the shadow on the sundial changes. The shadow touches different numbers in somewhat the same way as the hands of a clock point to numbers. It is almost as easy to read the time on a sundial as it is on a clock. But what if the sun isn’t shining and there are no shadows anywhere?

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People who live near the ocean can tell time from the tides. In the daytime for about six hours, the water rises higher and higher on the beach. And then it goes down and down for about six hours. The same thing happens again at night. There are two high tides and two low tides every 24 hours. Sailors on a ship learn how to tell time by looking at the moon and the stars. The whole sky is their clock! In some places in the world the wind comes up at about the same time every day or changes direction or stops blowing. In these places the wind can be the clock!

A can of water can help you measure time! Get someone to punch a tiny hole in the bottom of a can. Then fill the can with water. The water will come drip-drip out of the can. You will have a water clock. Each time you fill the can right to the top, it will take about the same amount of time for the water to drip out. If you told a friend that you could play for only two more emptyings of your water clock, you both would know exactly when to stop playing.

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A sand clock is an even better clock. If you had fine dry sand in a glass shaped like the one in the picture you would have what is called an hourglass. The sand in an hourglass flows from the top part to the bottom part in exactly one hour. When the hourglass is turned over, the sand will take another hour to flow back again. Other kinds of sand clocks called egg timers look like tiny hourglasses. The sand inside egg timers falls to the bottom in the time that it takes to boil an egg.

A Famous City of Africa

Far away in the middle of Africa, the land from which the great-great grandparents of most American black people came, is a very old and famous city called Timbuktu. Even before America was discovered, Timbuktu was a city rich with gold. It had colorful markets, tall towers and thousands of houses made of square-cut stones and sun-dried bricks.

Students came from far countries by riverboat and by camel to study at the schools and university. Some came to study law, and others came to read in the libraries about people who lived so long ago that they had almost been forgotten. Caravans with thousands of camels brought grain and sugar and salt to Timbuktu to trade for ivory and gold and jeweled ornaments.

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One of Timbuktu’s kings was the wise and powerful Askia Mohammed-Askia the Great. He ruled over Timbuktu and other busy cities in the wide land of desert and plain, mountain and jungle. The court of King Askia shone with jewels and gold. There seemed to be gold everywhere. The shields and armor and even weapons of the soldiers who protected the royal princes and princesses, were decorated with gold. The ladies of the court wore silken gowns. They had bands of gold in their hair and jeweled sandals on their feet.

Gold and books and sweet music are the things that people remember about Timbuktu-which was already a city at the time when America was still a place of tall grass and dark forests and wild animals.

The Magic Liquid

Would you believe someone could make a shirt out of the brown liquid in this bottle? There are men whose job it is to turn liquid into fibers called rayon. The cloth maker then weaves rayon fibers into cloth. Then a factory or perhaps your mother, makes the cloth into a shirt or a dress.How is the brown liquid made into a fiber?

At the rayon factory, cottonseed fuzz and ground wood are soaked with a special liquid. The liquid is special because it has chemical in it. The soaked fuzz and wood are dumped into large tubs. The tubs have paddles that break everything up into crumbs. The chemical in the special liquid softens the crumbs. When another chemical is added, the soft crumbs become an orange liquid. This liquid is pumped through pipes to giant tanks as tall as houses. It must stay there for many hours until it is just right for making rayon fibers.

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The liquid is ready when it has turned brown-like the brown liquid in the bottle. The men in the tank room watch to see when the liquid is one of the tanks is ready to be used. It is then pumped to the spinning room. In the spinning room there are long sinks filled with a chemical called acid. Along the back of each sink are nozzles that look a little like those in your bathroom shower. A pump pushes the brown liquid out of the nozzles. The workers push the nozzles down into the acid. They quickly reach into the acid and pull out a small rope. It is almost like magic!

The men quickly wrap the rope around some stretching wheels. The wheels keep pulling more rope out of the acid. Where is the rope coming from? The brown liquid.As soon as it goes into the acid, the brown liquid hardens into a fiber. Each hole in the nozzle makes one fiber and some nozzles have hundreds of holes. So these nozzles make small ropes with many, many fibers. The fibers can be spun into thread, and the thread woven into cloth.

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By adding different chemicals to the brown liquid, the rayon maker can make fibers that are like cotton, wool or silk and some that are very different from any fibers ever used. Color can be put into the brown liquid too so that the fibers are already colored when they are made. And that is how a shirt can come out of a bottle of colored liquid!

The Turtles Takes Its Time

These baby sea turtles climbing out of their eggs won’t need a mother or father turtle to help them. They will be able to take care of themselves. They will scramble from their nest under the sand and walk on their tiny new flippers to the water. When they’re grown, these sea turtles will come back to shore to make their own nests. Because they can’t live in hot sunshine for very long, they will dig their nests after sunset and then lay their eggs and cover them with sand. Later, after they have rested they will return to the sea.

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When the babies are hatched they too will take care of themselves, finding their way to the sea and to the small fish, snails and insects that they eat. This is the way all turtles start life-alone and on land. Although turtles start life alone, they are always at home because they carry their houses with them wherever they go. Their houses are their shells! Always tough as leather, sometimes hard as rocks, the shells help keep the turtles safe from enemies.

If you picked up a little box turtles, it would pull its head, legs and tail all the way inside its shell. Box turtles aren’t dangerous, and they make good pets. Don’t get too close to snapping turtle. Its jaws are strong. When it bites anything, it hangs on for a long time and won’t let go.

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Many turtles live in oceans, ponds or muddy river bottoms. But some don’t live in water at all. Some live in hot desert sands, miles and miles away from water. They dig under the ground to protect themselves from the hot sun. Other turtles live in damp wood, stretching their long necks out from their shells to look for insects under logs and to reach the leaves, green shoots and berries that they eat.

But no matter where they live, turtles don’t need to hunt for food or water all the time, They have special inside their bodies where they can store water and they can store food in the form of fat. Turtles can live for days even weeks without anything to eat or drinks.There are turtles as small as a child’s hand. Others like the leatherback turtle, weigh as much as a small elephant. For their size turtles are among the slowest moving animals. All of them live longer than any other animal we know about. Since the days when there were dinosaurs, turtles have roamed the Earth, both on land and in water. But in all these millions of years they haven’t changed very much.

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Where Is Everybody

Everybody here is trying to get somewhere faster by going into a tunnel. There are many kinds of tunnels. This tunnel is an underground shortcut that we can use to go from one place to another. In the world of tunnels, the trains and automobiles go speeding under hills and mountains and even under rivers.

Trains rush through city tunnels called subways. The trains roar like thunder as they go through the tunnel. When the train stops at the station where you are waiting, you have to step inside quickly or the doors will close and the train will leave without you. How did the tunnels get where they are? If you have ever tried to make a tunnel in snow, you know how quickly the snow can cave in..and no more tunnel!

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When men make tunnels under the ground, they use machines to cut through hard rock, and they build strong walls to hold the dirt and water back. They wear special helmets so that they won’t be hurt if rocks fall on their heads. Some tunnels are built through high mountains. The tunnel is the shortest way through. Men used to build roads over the mountains instead. Or if a mountain was too tall or the sides went up too straight, the road was built around the sides.

These roads were sometimes dangerous and long and hard to drive. The tunnel is safer, easier and shorter. Some tunnels are built for cars or trains to use. Others are built for people to walk through. Often tunnels are built under city streets so that trains, cars or people can go from one place to another without getting caught in the slow-moving traffic of the city streets. Some tunnels are built under rivers. They let trains or cars go from one side of the river to the other. If the tunnel is deep enough under the water, ships can easily sail over the tunnel.

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Men have learned how to make and use tunnels, but some animals were making and using them long before people were. Both gophers and moles build underground tunnels and live in them. The tools that the small, soft furred mole uses for digging are its large front feet, shaped like shovels. The mole spends most of its life underground, in the tunnels it digs.

内政部长慕尤丁应该分清楚民事诉讼和刑事案

民主行动党社青团全国署理团长暨彭亨州丹那拉打区州议员张玉刚于6月26日发表文告 :内政部长慕尤丁应该分清楚民事诉讼和刑事案; 前朝国阵政府于2015年5月12日,在法庭承认赵家对反贪污委员会的疏忽起诉,导致赵明福“离奇坠楼身亡”,并向赵明福家属赔偿66万令吉,作为民事诉讼的最终协议。政府将向赵家支付60万令吉的疏忽赔偿,以及6万令吉堂费。

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但是,这是民事诉讼,政府只是陪钱,真凶仍未落网!任何人都可以发起民事诉讼。但是若要追究刑事责任,把真凶绳之以法,就唯有总检察署和执法单位能够做。我们必须以正视听,赵明福遭他杀乃刑事案,并没有因为民事案的和解而结束,因为这项刑事案涉及致死他人的严重罪行,必须将凶手绳之以法,才能结案。

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