The Etruscans were a very religious people. Their chief gods were Tinia, Uni, Minrva, the trio worshipped by the ancient Romans later under the names of Jove, Juno and Minerva. Only some of the Etruscan gods had the power to launch thunderbolts. Tinia was one of the more powerful of the divinities.
Religious ceremonies were conducted by priests who formed a very powerful class of Etruscan society. These priests were the only persons permitted to divine or guess the will of the gods and to tell the future. They did this in various ways; by examining the entrails of sacrificed animals; by bird watching; by observing lightning and other weather phenomena ; and the ebbing and flowing of streams.
Of all the entrails the liver was studied with greatest care. A bronze model of a liver found at the city of Piacenza is divided into forty-five areas. each with the name of a presiding deity written in it. The priests who studied birds traced the will of gods from the way bird flew, cried and ate. The sign seen by these priests who known as auguries which could be either bad or good.
The Etruscan religion comprised a complicated set of beliefs and ceremonies for every act in public life. The laws relating to the foundation of the city were particularly strict.
The Etruscans believed, especially in their early days, that when they died they passed on to another life similar to the one in this world. They provided the dead with many objects of everyday life and the statues on the tombs depict people sitting at table with guests or playing music, singing or even hunting.
King Hammurabi ruler of Babylonia, is remembered in many documents as a great lawmaker and warrior. He reigned for some forty years from about 1792 to 1750 B.C., and made his capital into a city of great splendour.
Akaun MB Inc tidak pernah diaudit semasa pemerintahan BN, mantan Menteri Besar Dato Seri Zambry telah melakukan kesalahan memesongkan dan mengelirukan Dewan Undangan Negeri dan boleh diambil tindakan.前州务大臣赞比里之前在州议会表示霹雳州大臣机构已经被稽查已经误导州议会，可以被对付！
By using both force and diplomacy Hammurabi extended his rule gradually over all Mesopotamia. His code of laws was a great achievement and gives us an insight into how justice was administered in Assyria and Babylonia.
Hammurabi was also great soldier and a ruthless leader with a fiery temperament. He loved war but as soon as he had unified his realm he devoted himself to peaceful pursuits and brought great wealth to the nation. His court was frequented by artists, scholars and philosophers. Babylonia became a land of beautiful palaces and buildings such as the temple of god Marduk which Hammurabi had constructed.
We know exactly all the 282 laws in which King Hammurabi included the entire legal traditions of his day because they were found on a stele ( stone slab) discovered at Susa in 1901 and now preserved in the Louvre Museum in Paris. The laws were written on the slab in a writing known as cuneiform. The slab also has a fine piece of sculpture depicting Samas, the god of justice, looking into the eyes of King Hammurabi as if to inspire him.
Babylonian society was divided into three distinct classes; the patricians, the plebeians and the slaves. Justice depended on the class to which person belonged. For example an article in Hammurabi’s legal code said ; If a patrician takes the eye of another patrician, one of his eyes also shall be taken. If he breaks the bone of another patrician, one of his bones too shall be broken.”
If, however the person hurt was a plebeian matters were different. The law said, ” If a patrician takes the eyes or breaks a bone of a plebeian , he will pay a mine of silver.’ Of course the penalty was smaller if the slaves was involved.
These laws seem very unfair to us today but the penalties inflicted are midway between the brutality of the Assyrian laws and the comparative leniency of the Hittites. We must remember that in social conditions of Hammurabi’s day such laws were needed to curb the vices and passions of the Babylonians.
Hammurabi died but his dynasty or family continued to rule for another 150 years although it never reached the same peak of glory as it had in his day.
The people of Mesopotamia that is the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians, created a system of writing that was quite different from that used in Egypt. The difference was because the people of Mesopotamia used clay to write instead of papyrus as in Egypt.
It is difficult to make curved lines on clay with a stylus so the Mesopotamians invented a handwriting based on straight lines that resembled nails or wedges. For this reason, their handwriting was known as ‘cuneiform’ a word meaning ‘wedge-shaped’. Cuneiform was later used on other materials such as stone or metal. This writing was ideographic as in Egypt, and used pictures instead of words.
The Carthaginians had the reputation of being dishonest and thieving but this does not not seem to be borne out by accounts written by Herodotus, the ancient historian. According to him, the Carthaginians would leave their goods on the seashore along the coast of Africa and would then retire to their ships and wait until the natives came along to inspect the goods. The natives looked at the goods and left a quantity of gold behind. The Carthaginians would then gather up the gold and value it. If they did not think it was enough, they would leave it there and withdraw gain. Then the natives would come back and add more gold. If this was enough the Carthaginians would take it away and leave the goods behind.
The Indians who lived in North America had been hunters since time immemorial. They were used to wandering across the vast prairies in pursuit of wild animals. But these Indians only became really nomadic after the coming of the Europeans.
We have often seen on western films how the Indians galloped along bareback on their horses, so it is quite surprising to learn that before the Europeans came in the fifteenth century, no horses had existed in the New World. The horse revolutionized the life of Indians and changed their ways greatly.
Horses were brought to America by the Spanish conquerors and settlers. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed in the wild, multiplying the numerous herds of the prairies and pampas. Soon there were tens of thousands of them throughout the continent. The Indians caught and tamed them and then learned to ride them. It was then that life changed for the Indians. This horse known as the mustang, brought enormous advantages; the Indian tribes could now move more easily from place to place and hunting became more effective and profitable.